Borderline Personality Disorder- Causes, Risk Factors, Diagnosis, Symptoms, Treatments You Need To Pay Attention To
Borderline personality disorder or BPD is a condition or disorder that occurs due to one’s inability to have control over their emotions or issues while regulating the way one reacts to emotions.
In simple words, you can think of it as a personality disorder in which a person will feel the intense rage of emotions for an extended time period after something has triggered them to reach that emotion. It is hard for them to regulate and come back to a normal state or baseline once that side of their personality is triggered.
According to various surveys and researches, the estimated percentage of people having a borderline personality disorder is 1.4% of the population. Among this population, nearly 25% of the total diagnosed with BPD are men, and the rest 75% are women. It is believed that men are diagnosed with depression.
There is a lot about borderline personality disorder that you need to learn apparently if you have come to read this article. Let me guide you through all the details to give you a better understanding of borderline personality disorder.
Different causes Of Borderline personality Disorder
Although the researchers have not figured out the exact reason or cause behind borderline personality disorder, there are certain factors that together contribute to a person having BPD. These factors include Genetics, serotonin abnormalities, and environmental factors.
Genetics Or Family History
BPD might be due to some genetic conditions. A study published in a journal in the US states that this disease is substantially linked to genetics. Also, the studies suggest that people who have close members in their family tree having a borderline personality disorder.
Environmental, Cultural, Or social Factors
According to live sessions or interactions with people suffering from borderline personality disorder it has come into the knowledge that traumatic events that happened in childhood or adolescents are a major cause behind the development of BPD. These traumatic events may be related to abuse, adversity in childhood, or abandonment. Other common reasons include unstable relationships that are invalidating or hostile conflicts between people.
Serotonin Abnormalities or Brain factors
The hormone that regulates our mood depending upon situations and swings is Serotonin. It is seen that abnormal secretion or functioning of this mood hormone sometimes leads to unstable mood swings susceptible to Borderline disorder. The areas that control emotional regulation and impulses in our brain goes through structural changes that may lead to BPD, however, it is not confirmed and is an assumption.
Although these factors are somewhat related to the development of Borderline personality disorder, there are cases in which people are seen developing BPD without having any of the above-mentioned risk factors or causes. Even if these causes are there in certain people, it is not necessary they are likely to develop BPD.
Factors that Mentions Who Is At Risk Of Developing BPD
You might develop or at risk of having BPD if the below-mentioned factors come into account of your behavior.
- If you are having someone in your family suffering from BPD previously.
- Your childhood was not very relaxing as you have faced emotionally vulnerable or unstable situations growing up.
- Adults surrounding you were not calm and kept impulsive nature that led to trauma.
- Emotional or physical abuse as a kid.
Various Complications Involved In Borderline Personality Disorder
A person suffering from BPD has an increased risk of disorders and is susceptible to other related disorders and diseases as well like depression, eating disorders, anxiety, substance abuse, and bipolar disorder.
Various symptoms you have when you are going through a condition of BPD can increase or escalate the risk of work problems, abusive relationships, sexually transmitted diseases, suicide, self-harm, accidents, or getting into violent crimes and becoming a victim.
Signs, Symptoms And Diagnosis Of Borderline personality disorders
A person having BPD is most likely to experience mood swings and will display uncertainty on how they are and what is their role in the universe. Due to these factors, their values and interests in everything keep deflecting and changes very often.
They are also likely to see everything be it their emotions or other factors very seriously or in extremes such as all bad and all good. Also, it is important to note that their opinion on other people also tends to change very soon. For example, they might consider you a good friend today but a traitor or enemy the next day. This further leads to complicated and unstable relationships that are not built on understanding.
Symptoms Or Signs
- Efforts to neglect imagined or real circumstances in life that are related to abandonment. For example, a person either starts initiating physically or emotionally intimate relationships or cuts off the entire bond of communication with the other person only in the fear of being abandoned by them.
- Patterns of unstable relations with closed ones like family or friends. On a day the relationship will be filled with joy and idealization while on the other day it will turn to the extreme opposite and turn into anger and devaluation.
- Unstable and distorted sense of self or self-image.
- Impulsive behaviors with others that will be varied from day to day like substance abuse, unsafe or rough sex, binge eating, reckless driving, spending sprees, etc. If you have any such behavior then that also might be a result of a mood disorder which is less harmful than a borderline personality disorder.
- Behavior that harms them like cutting or suicidal behavior having a bad sense of self and reduction in the ability to figure out what is right at that very moment.
- Recurring threats to others and suicidal tendencies.
- Change in mood that lasts either for a few hours or days at times.
- A feeling of not being loved and emptiness inside (also results in depression).
- Intense anger and predicaments when it comes to having control over the anger.
- Difficulty in building trust over others leads to a constant fear of being left alone and the intentions of another person without any evident reason.
- A feeling of cut off from everyone and oneself leading to dissociation.
Do not get confused and assume that a person with a borderline personality disorder will have all the above-mentioned symptoms or signs. People show different signs depending upon their environment or genetics. The situation in the life of every individual is different and based on that the signs are different. The level of illness also determines these factors and how a person goes through emotional stress and changes in their behavior. However, it is difficult to measure the frequency of changes and illness.
Treatments And Therapies In Borderline Personality Disorder
Earlier the treatment of BPD was not well developed and difficult to treat but with trending approaches and pieces of evidence, the symptoms have become less harmful or severe than before. With improved symptoms, the quality of one’s life also improves and becomes better over time with proper treatments.
It is very important that the people suffering from BPD look for specialized and evidence-based treatments along with a well-experienced and trained doctor or psychiatrist. Treatments are different based on severity and illness. If you see a doctor that is not very well trained with cases of BPD, you might not be able to receive all the benefits and get early treatments.
It is very crucial to show patience and wait for the treatment to show its effects as it may take from few months to years of time. The patient as well as family members should remain calm and patient while dealing with BPD.
There are different tests, treatments, and diagnosis methods mentioned below.
Psychotherapy (Talk Therapy)
It is quite common in BPD and related disorders like Narcissistic personality disorder and depression. There are two types of therapies based on your choice and the treatment provider’s choice. You can either go for a one-to-one session of therapy that is private or chose to go for group therapy which will involve people with similar symptoms around you and can put you at ease. You will also be able to carry out effective interactions with other people which will help you express all your sorrows and thoughts to similar people motivating them to speak as well.
In group therapy sessions, make sure you trust your treatment provider and other people interacting with you as this will improve the chances of better treatment. The nature of people undergoing a Borderline Personality Disorder makes it hard for people to trust one another and the psychiatrist.
There are two types of Psychotherapies commonly used for BPD, these are:
DBT Or Dialectical Behaviour Therapy
This therapy was initially developed for all those people who had developed a borderline personality disorder. This therapy uses acceptance of self and the situation an individual is going through using mindfulness. A person is aware of the emotional state and thoughts their mind can lead to. DBT involves the teaching skills that can aid in:
- Improve the quality of relationships and over time.
- Controlling of extreme and intense emotions
- Reducing behavior that can lead to self-harm or destruction.
CBT Or Cognitive Behavioral Therapy
This is another type of talk therapy, that can be immensely helpful for people having Borderline personality disorder. It will help people make changes in their core beliefs and conduct that underlie perceptions of other people and themselves including problems in facing and communicating with others. It will immensely help in reducing suicidal behavior and symptoms. It may help in improving mood swings and symptoms of anxiety or depression.
Medications For BPD
The benefits you get from benefits if you are undergoing BPD are not yet completely clear. Doctors might suggest medicines to cure related symptoms that usually comes along a borderline personality disorder like depression, mood swings, and other mental disorder that are co-occurring in nature.
Not all medications are suitable for everyone as symptoms also differ sometimes. Do not blindly set out and go for medicines you are not aware of before consulting a doctor. Talk to experts and ask their opinion by mentioning all the signs you are going through before proceeding with medicine as it might have side effects.
Diagnosis And Tests
Consult a licensed medical professional or health professionals like a psychologist, psychotherapist, or psychologist who has previous experience in handling related cases or patients. These experts can help in the proper diagnosis of BPD using different techniques like:
- Personal interviews and discussions about various symptoms.
- By performing, medical exams and careful diagnosis can help you distinguish between various symptoms and signs.
- Asking about histories related to the medical condition of the family.
Stick With The Treatment
A borderline Personality disorder is often associated with suicidal tendencies and thoughts leading to self-harm. Studies reveal that people having BPD who do not receive the required treatment is more likely to:
- Develop other mental illnesses related to BPD.
- Make unhealthy choices of lifestyle
Tips To Keep In Mind For Family And Friends
You might be knowing some people that are close to you having Borderline Personality Disorder, to help them achieve proper treatment and care keep the following tips in mind.
- Offer understanding, emotional support, encouragement, and patience. The thought of change can be overwhelming as well as frightening for BPD patients and they might want to run away from it. But you have to provide emotional supports constantly and believe that they will get stable and better over time.
- Read more about BPD and consult an expert or known psychologists to get advice and know more about BPD, this will help you understand the triggers and situation of the person.
- Always encourage and provide positive thoughts to the person and make them believe they are improving daily.
- Look for counseling for yourself as well. Keep in mind to opt for a different psychiatrist or psychologist, not the one who is dealing with your closed one who has BPD.
This was everything in detail you need to know about borderline personality disorder and tips for your close ones.